TOP USER COUNTY: USA
TOP FACT: THE COLDEST CITY (WINTER AVERAGE, DEGREES)
TOP CATEGORY: CLIMATE & ENVIRONMENT
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Research shows that penalties for speeding such as demerit points or cost can often be an effective tool in reducing the number of accidents on our roads. The 'Cameras Save Lives' campaign by the Victorian Government is typical of the rationale.
However, the cost and frequency of receiving a fine can have a significant impact on a household budget. Some view speeding fines simply as a revenue raising exercise for Governments.
The cost of infringements is extremely high in most Australian cities, though some face more punitive fines than others. This FACT indicates the cost of a speeding fine in each Australian city when the speed of the vehicle exceeds to exactly 5 km/hr over the designated speed limit. Note: the fine is for cars and not necessarily heavy vehicles.
This FACT is also ranked high to low (high is good) in the Community and Safety category.
Climate change and global warming are hot on the agenda of Australian politics. Individuals and businesses alike are becoming more attuned to the effects and costs of pollution and carbon emissions. This FACT indicates the amount in tonnes of greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) emissions by liquid fuels per 100,000 persons in each state and territory. Data for the Australian Capital Territory could not be obtained.
This FACT indicates the percentage of a person's weekly income spent on rent. To achieve this percentage the median personal income of each city is divided by the respective median rent figure. The median has been utilised as it gives a more accurate reflection of the overall data set, as it is not impacted by outliers (or figures that lie far outside of the regular data range). According to the most recent ABS Census (2016), the city paying the highest percentage of personal income on weekly rent was Sydney, with 61.2 percent. The city with the lowest percentage was Canberra with 38.4 percent, followed closely by Darwin at 39.9 percent. When coupled with data showing the 'richest city', the people of Canberra enjoy more financial liberty, having more disposable income after rental commitments.
Australians are relatively conscious about water usage, and many households have employed measures to reduce their water consumption. This FACT indicates the total average water usage per household in gigalitres for each state between the years 2015 to 2016.
Total household water consumption is calculated by combining the amount of water distributed to households by water providers with the amount extracted through bores and other self-extraction facilities. 'Self-extracted ' water use is calculated by applying a coefficient, based on average number of kilolitres used per household connection, to the households known not to be served by water providers. The state with the highest total water use is New South Wales with 561.78 gigalitres. The state with the least is the Australian Capital Territory with 31.27 gigalitres.
This FACT indicates the average Home Value Index (HVI) unit prices of each Australian city. The HVI aims to measure month to month movements in the value of Australian housing markets. These prices have been taken from the monthly values for the end of February 2018. The cheapest city in which to buy a unit is Darwin, significantly lower than Perth. A unit in Sydney, unsurprisingly, costs the most. This FACT is indicated in thousands of dollars.